Sunday, June 17, 2018

Code of Silence in Schools

School board’s policies and educational 'hunger games' drive the code of silence in our schools

As a CPS social worker, I was horrified to hear the news of students being sexually abused – and those cases not being properly reported.  As a clinician, I have many situations where DCFS has to be called because a child has been molested outside of school by a family member, family friend or other molester.  It has always been in our training and in our school’s policy to always report! So what has gone wrong? My fellow clinicians and I started discussing the need for more trainings, after assuming that administrators and staff are not of aware what needs to be – and is required to be – reported. 
Then I started thinking more broadly about what has been happening at the Board, and the roots of this disaster started making more sense to me. 
The Board has created an extremely competitive climate within its schools: 1+, IB, Wall to Wall IB, AP classes, dual credit classes and whatnot –all sorts of classifications that make schools attractive to the best and brightest students. And with student-based budgeting, the more students we attract to our schools, the more resources we have for our students. These ‘hunger games’ between schools create an atmosphere of intense competition, and discourage sharing information that could expose schools to scrutiny, criticism and the threat of negative impacts to ratings, enrollment, budgets and more. 
What’s the result? Problems are not accurately reported or are under-reported, from dirty schools and high dropout rates to harassment or sexual abuse by students or staff – anything that may hurt the reputation of the school!
Teachers and other school personnel are deeply affected by this competition. A job at a ‘good’ school – one with adequate resources, a well-maintained facility and adequate staff – is hard to get and in short supply. Many teachers who’ve been displaced by school closings are still looking for a permanent job, and other teachers are nervous about speaking up to administrators for fear it may affect their evaluation scores and their job.
The threat is real. We’ve recently seen several teachers and clinicians threatened with job loss or run out of their schools in the wake of whistle-blowing or advocating for their students. Some teachers have even figured out that if they play nice with My Voice/My School teacher surveys, their school has a better chance of becoming a 1+ school. If they withhold their true feelings about poor school climates, poor relationships with administrators or other problems, their school will earn more points towards the coveted 1+ school ranking!
Checks and balances, which are a MUST in any healthy organization, are absent in CPS from the top of the system down. We don’t have an elected school board, and administrators and staff are afraid to challenge the Mayor, as we clearly see in all of the rubber-stamping that goes on. This trickles down from administrators to staff and students, very much like a dysfunctional family system! 
What do we do?  Will more trainings and in-services or additional policies and procedures solve this critical problem? Not without real accountability, an end to fear-based governance, and the freedom to put our children’s needs ahead of politics. The bottom line is that, without a healthy, democratic process – including an elected, representative school board – trainings and new policies alone will not work, because the dysfunction that drives the code of silence remains.
We see it in our brothers and sisters in the Police Department – and our school system is getting just as bad.  Two recent CEO’s have been forced out – and one is in jail – for corruption and ethics scandals. This board has been exposed for leaving our vulnerable special education students unprotected and abused with their new policies and procedures. But none of this dysfunction was tackled internally. Instead, teachers and parents were ignored or worse.
We need to end this lack of accountability if our school system is to become healthy. All schools need to have the resources to be excellent schools. Budgets should be based on the needs of every school and its students, and not primarily on the number of students attending. The competitive marketing of schools and the push to attract students at any cost needs to end. Excellent neighborhood schools should be the norm and not the exception, where the administrators, frontline staff, parents and students share a commitment to the community -- and we’re all dedicated to keeping children and their neighborhood safe.
If the Mayor and his administrators are truly serious about keeping our students safe, then we need to see these changes: an end to educational hunger games, an elected, representative school board free from political manipulation, and sustainable community schools that are adequately resourced according to the needs of each of our students and their families.
CPS school social worker and CTU member Bessie Tsitsopoulos  

Friday, June 15, 2018

Anti-War Resolution Passes HOD

Unjust Wars of Aggression Leave All Children Behind
(Resolution Passes Unanimously at June, 2018 House of Delegates Meeting)

President Trump's efforts to massively increase the military budget at the expense of public education tell us what he and the war hawks in Congress value.

Whereas, public schools in working class communities and communities of color in Chicago and across the U.S. are consistently underfunded and in many instances subject to closure, and

Whereas, the US currently has the lowest number of public employees on record since 1967, and

Whereas, the federal government is fully capable of remediating funding shortfalls that occur at state and local levels if that was their priority; while instead, President Trump's budget asks for an an $80 billion increase in military spending: 13 percent more than in FY 2017 when the US spent $634 billion (more than the combined military budgets of the next eight countries combined), and

Whereas, an ongoing and intensifying state of belligerence against Iran and North Korea has increased the military's share of the discretionary federal budget (65%, up from 62%) and directed funds away from public education and other social needs, and

Whereas, mainstream media in the US and in the West generally present Iran and North Korea as aggressor nations despite their not having attacked any other nations, and

Whereas, mainstream media, parroting the US State Dept's positions, rarely acknowledge that North Korea's missile tests are conducted for defensive purposes as a deterrent to invasion by a US military that possesses about 900 nuclear weapons (NY Times 1/3/18). North Korea has less than 10, and

Whereas, President Trump has on multiple occasions literally threatened to destroy North Korea. North Korea has nevertheless decided to take seriously his recent on again off again offers to negotiate a final settlement of the 1950-53 Korean War and his demands for unilateral denuclearization, and

Whereas, the US Government has for nearly two years aided a proxy against the people of Yemen by enabling Saudi Arabia, one of the world's least democratic states, to bomb and blockade that country. The resulting cholera epidemic is considered to be the worst in modern history and has led to the deaths of tens of thousands of civilians. Recently the Saudis bombed a wedding party, and

Whereas, US weaponry was recently used by the Israeli military to kill and injure 1,500 civilians in Gaza, and act condemned by the United Nations and virtually the entire world, and

Whereas, US troops have been re-introduced in Iraq and deployed in Syria ostensibly to fight ISIS. However, there appears to be no end to their presence short of regime change, and

Whereas, unjustified threats of US military intervention have been made against Venezuela, likely using Colombia as a base of operations, while Venezuela has not threatened the US in anyway whatever, and

Whereas, right-wing forces often push to redistribute tax allocations away from the public sector and into corporate and military sectors, be it

Resolved, that the Chicago Teachers Union calls upon the federal government:

- to renounce use of a nuclear or other pre-emptive strike on Iran, North Korea or any other country and.

- to prioritize peace and social spending in place of our growing emphasis on military expansion and war-mongering; and be it finally

Resolved, that the Chicago Teachers Union will support anti-war groups such as  Veterans for Peace, Women for Peace and Labor Against War* and participate in mobilizations and other actions to stop a ramp up to war that reflect the concerns raised in this resolution.

* this bold text was added by CTU officer Michael Brunson during resolution debate in the House of Delegates

Wednesday, June 13, 2018

HOD June Meeting

Chicago Teachers Pass Budget in Last Delegates Meeting
By Jim Vail

CTU staffer Brandon Johnson spoke at the June HOD after winning the democratic primary to the Cook County Board of Commissioners.

The Chicago Teachers Union (CTU) delegates passed a budget in which $5 million was drained from the reserves, forcing the union leadership to tighten its belt as it heads into rocky waters.

"Look we spent beyond our means and we need to correct that," VP Jesse Sharkey explained to the delegates during the Q&A period after the vote to approve the budget was passed overwhelmingly at the June 6 House of Delegates (HOD) meeting.

According to the Revised April 23, 2018 Budget Committee Proposal, the union cut $689,500 from salaries under program services (some union employees retired and one returned to the classroom), trimmed $200,000 from conferences, workshops and 'defense,' cut another $441,023 in salaries and $398,702 in employee benefits under Admin. & General and sliced $131,000 from professional fees.

One form of reckless spending has been in the political arena where the union loaned the political action committee $1 million for the Chuy Garcia mayor campaign, along with its contract fight.

The budget states that almost $3 million was trimmed, although it is confusing when it comes to a CTU budget and a CTU foundation budget that was set up after the Fewkes Tower was sold and the current union headquarters on Carroll Street was bought and renovated. The union appears to be transferring funds back and forth between the two entities.

It is especially important that the union safely protects its budget as an upcoming Supreme Court ruling that will allow CTU members to no longer pay dues and the continued attacks on the union - with two anti-union billionaires in the governor's race (IFT endorsed JB Pritzker may say he's pro-union, but his family has a history of extreme anti-unionism).

The beginning Q&A period took some heavy shots at the leadership with one delegate questioning nepotism in the union because the CTU staff coordinator - who will return to the classroom to teach next fall - is Jackson Potter, and his mother is an attorney for the union. VP Sharkey said Potter's mother does good work for the union and didn't see a problem. The Chicago Public Schools (CPS) has a policy against nepotism which does not allow principals to hire family members. The charter schools have gotten around this rule, and some like Aspira have flaunted it by hiring many family members of the principal at one of its schools in Albany Park.

The next delegate asked about the increased health care costs where some medicines increased from $40 to $160. Sharkey said the union is continuously negotiating with the board over health care costs throughout the year. 

Delegate Frank McDonald from Members First asked why the union did not publish its annual audits like it should, and he was surprised to discover that the CTU took out a $4 million loan to buy furniture at the current interest rate. Sharkey said this happened after the union lost its financial director in the middle of the year, the year before.

"The last several years we've been spending more money than we've been bringing in," he said. "It was an oversight that it didn't get published."

Sharkey said he remains in regular contact with CTU President Karen Lewis, who attended her first delegates meeting the last month in a wheel chair. He said the newspapers incorrectly stated Lewis is due for 'brain surgery' and instead said she has a "planned medical procedure." 

"We need to claim the legacy of Karen Lewis as our own," Sharkey stated. Nothing more was revealed about her condition.

The CTU said this year only 156 teachers and 106 teacher assistants lost their jobs. In the past CPS has laid off thousands of teachers at the end of the school years because of the budget.

Sharkey asked teachers if anyone knows a Noble Charter School teacher because they are trying to organize a union for the teachers.

Newly elected in the democratic primary for Cook County Commissioner Brandon Johnson who works for the union and was a middle school teacher took the podium to give his rah, rah speech about the difficulties of teaching and the problems of the students while he taught in Cabrini Green. His payback to receiving almost $100,000 from the CTU for his campaign was a pro-CTU speech that once again cited the 'historic' 2012 teachers strike that has galvanized the nation. "You see a sea of red across our country inspired by the CTU," he thundered. One wonders if the CTU is pouring money into political candidates who will in turn support the CTU leadership when election time rolls around.

The CTU leadership addressed the issue of salaries and benefits for the next contract after it's been taking heat from rival Members First for agreeing to a contract that has frozen salaries for many CTU members. 

CTU Staff Coordinator Jackson Potter - who is heading back to the classroom in Back of the Yards and said he hopes to be replaced by Jenn Johnson from the Quest Center who is also an original Core member - made a speech in which he noted that the union had to focus its efforts on fending off the attacks on the pension, and that is why salaries and benefits took a hit. 

"They wanted to turn CPS into New Orleans," Potter said, where after Hurricane Katrina most of the public schools were privatized and turned into charter schools. Actually one Chicago Tribune female editor wrote that she wished a hurricane would hit Chicago so the same thing could happen here. "We backed off a precipice," he said.

"We're due big increases!" Sharkey bellowed out. He pointed out that the union got an important clause in the contract called 'just cause' where teachers cannot be suspended for ordering a sandwich during testing, which happened to one teacher. In fact, the union just emailed its members a YouTube video entitled 'Our Wages and Salary History' about the CTU's 40-year fight for fair pension funding, adequate pay and better schools, with Sharkey and CTU education policy analyst Pavlyn Jankov.

Sunday, June 10, 2018


By Stephen Wilson


It was painfully tedious! I had planned precisely every English lesson
but had another half an hour before the lesson. I knew from past
experience that you could never be certain whether any of those plans
might work as children are not automatic robots but are all exceptionally
unique! Anything can happen. While I was waiting the five-year-old
son of the head teacher was growing restless . His mother was teaching
in the adjacent room. He seemed bored out of his mind. Then I saw
something wonderfully enchanting! It was a chess set. Now Hans
Christian Anderson wrote stories about pots and pans speaking and
this chess set beckoned to me " Play with me". So I took the set and
persuaded the boy to learn the first basic moves in chess as well as
some verbs in English. And he seemed to learn the main moves
quicker than I anticipated. At least the game helped him calm down
enough not to pester his mother who was teaching. The off shot of
it was that I ended up giving some English lessons in the form of chess
to him for the next few weeks. So I have found that chess can, from
time to time, act as a continuation of English lessons by other means.
But I might go further than that! An old proverb states that: 'Charity
begins at home'. I never liked this proverb as it was misconstrued
as implying in a mean-minded and myopic way to 'Take care
of your own but be indifferent to the strangers ' or 'Don't love the alien'.
I would paraphrase the proverb with 'Charity can begin with chess'.
By charity, I don't mean the narrowly defined meaning of just giving
donations to this cause or helping someone from a distance. I
mean the original meaning; Loving respect! For instance, a student
who worked with orphans told me how one volunteer turned up at
an orphanage and taught everyone to play chess! He spent time
with the children and taught them a useful skill. The great thing about
teaching chess is that you don't need vast resources or funds
but only an inexpensive chess set . Today I just managed to buy one
for only 300 rubles from a kiosk which comes to about 5 dollars.
By teaching children chess we are not just offering a game of
amusement. Nor is it just a case of improving logic. Learning to
play chess is also an exercise in emotional intelligence, or more
appropriately, moral philosophy. Children need to learn that playing
chess is about learning to lose graciously. That is, if a person loses
he should not go into a tantrum and overturn the chess board. This
might seem like a platitude. But all too often people perceive life
in terms of either being a total winner or total loser . But despite the
tendency to make instant judgments about people there are no
total losers or winners. We all lose at something. In addition, it is
possible to interpret losing as a form of winning and vice versa.
So ideally, a child would learn to slowly cope with losing and would
learn that failing exams or not getting into the best university is not
the end of the world. There are also many different ways of
realizing yourself or developing your talents. Losing is an imperative
must to develop an immunity system against the endlessly
capricious assessments which are being made about us. So chess
can be viewed as one way of mastering your own negative emotions by
learning not just logic but patience, tolerance and even empathy
when we feel sorry for the person we beat in the game. If you think
this is banal then ask yourself the following question: 'How many
forms of suicide have been committed by people because they
lost some job, career or sports game? ' Although suicide is a very
complex and often inscrutable act there are cases where the cause
is directly related to the person having a very narrow perception of
what constituted losing or winning in life! What if the person had
learnt a more open minded view of winning and losing? Learning
to play chess in the proper way would have given the person a
more liberating view on how to live life and go on.
So at the end of the game of chess there are two kings on the
board. The player who has become king of himself or herself and
the chess figure of the king. And maybe three kings will appear if
both players have attained some kind of peace of mind!

Friday, June 8, 2018

By Stephen Wilson


A bus tour is going to begin on 15th June in Chicago from Saint Sabina Academy
to mark an escalation of the campaign for proper and prudent gun protection
enforcement. The tour sets out on a 60 day journey with 75 stops.
They definitely deserve our moral, spiritual and active assistance.
The survivors of the Marjory Stoneman Douglas school massacre which claimed 17
victims last February have decided to embark on a special bus tour around
major American cities to canvass support for their campaign for proper gun control
enforcement. The marchers are calling for much stricter controls of guns,
background checks on people purchasing guns as well as to challenge indifferent
politicians who are only interested in towing the line of the gun lobby to hang on
to power. The Minister of Education, Betsy Devos, stated that the new school
shooting panel will not consider any gun control measures or even study the role
of gun in school safety. Strange as it may seem, politicians don't even conceal
their stark indifference. As some people in Glasgow might say: "Those politicians
would not piss on you if you were on fire". So it comes as no surprise that
one of the tactics of the campaign will be to unseat such politicians who don't or
won't take action to implement much stronger gun control.

Time might be on the side of the campaigners. As many as 4 million people turn
18 this year and their potential vote could well make a difference. That is if they
can be persuaded to use their vote! Many young Americans can not be bothered
to turn out and vote . In fact, only an estimated one out of five between the age of
18-24 voted. However, public pressure can make a difference as shown by the
fact that already new legislation in Florida was passed raising the age of firearms
purchase to 21 as well as strengthening mental health background checks.
The ferocity of the backlash against campaigning students is something else.
Rather than applauding and assisting the initiative of wise students, there has
been a massive campaign to smear and blacken the reputation of students.
Much of this is just cheap, crude and vulgar insults that have no place in a
forum of rational debate. Those allegations are so crude they represent an
insult to human intelligence. As if a person's school grades has any relevant
connection to the more urgent need to save human lives! The supporters
of gun lobby should be instead, asking themselves whether they have more
bullets than brains?

Many people from Britain and Russia wholeheartedly support the marchers
wishing them the best. They ardently admire their efforts. Many Russians are
often shocked to learn just how lax the gun laws in America are and often
think that I'm making up a joke that it is easier for a young man to buy a
gun in America than a glass of beer. "You should not make up black jokes
like this Stephen. You are very cruel! We are talking about the lives of people". \
But no, it was no joke!

Shakespeare in Voronezh

By Stephen Wilson

The Second International Educational and Theater Festival 'Shakespearia',
held in the Russian city of Voronezh , from the 14th to the 27th May, turned
out to be an unprecedented success. There was certainly something special
about the events. An Italian Theater group performed 'Romeo and Juliet ' in
the old original English on the very streets of the city, young children had
the opportunity to write and see their plays performed by professional actors
at the Voronezh Academic Drama Theater and there were countless opportunities
for children to take the stage by singing, dancing or acting out a play. Professional
actors from Britain and Italy were on hand to share their tips about how to
perform Shakespeare's plays in English. The festival emphasized the three
themes of Education, Drama and Charity. I think the actor, Alex Dower, spoke
for us all when he declared: " I'm so happy there is such a positive energy
coming from the city". The events were crowned with a rich variety of events
in one of the most beautiful sights in the city : Park Dynamo.

I had been invited to the festival to provide a storytelling workshop to children
in the park. But before leaving from Moscow, I almost missed my train. I
managed to shuffle through the train's corridor to my compartment meeting a
bemused Englishman . He turned out to be a professional actor and drama
teacher from England called Jonathan Salwey. We were to share the same
compartment. I was very lucky to meet him. Jonathan had happened to have
founded the first English Theater company in Moscow who presented plays in
English such as 'Educating Rita' and a more recent dark comedy concerning
the taboo of suicide. His theater has achieved immense success and is often
fully booked. Jonathan did not anticipate such positive success. So it is not
surprising that he has been living in Moscow for 6 years. He loves working in
Moscow. We spoke about how so many people are still scared of coming to
the city because they fear being harmed. Jonathan told me : " I invited a very
good black actor from Britain to Moscow . He was worried he might have
problems such as racism . But when he went out he met a skinhead who
spoke to him and even warmly embraced him when he left the place. The actor
told me he had a great time in Moscow and liked the people."

We spoke a lot about Shakespeare . I asked him : "What do you think of the
view that Shakespeare did not really write his works ? " Jonathan answered
"Some people may have collaborated with him in writing the plays. I know
people can become very passionate about this issue. But does it really matter?
The main point is that we have those works!"

I was later to take part in one of his workshops which turned out to be very
useful. The Russian teachers, and actors apparently enjoyed reading out the
lines from Shakespeare which he had handed out to them. He told us that:
'There is nothing cryptic about Shakespeare. Except for around 6 lines which
professors are at a loss to explain, the meaning of his words are clear". And
"It is important to focus on the meaning of the words and the beat behind
them...... When I was a young school student I asked myself why Shakespeare's
plays were in verse. I wondered whether people in the 16th century spoke to
to each other in verse. Later , I understood that poetry is still close to natural
speech." Jonathan warned the students that even professional actors have been
defeated by the text of Shakespeare . He told me that actors should never ignore
the punctuation in his lines because commas in the lines indicating pauses are
of profound meaningful significance. He offered students advise on how to
find the important cues in lines and how to 'color words' by expressing a particular
word in different ways. The students relished acting out the 'insults' which had
been written by the playwright.

I also made the acquaintance of Alex Dower, who also gave workshops and had
been teaching drama to prisoners in Britain. It turned out that we had shared the
same student from a Glasgow prison called Toe Eliot. I felt I was going back in
time. He had met Toe Eliot in 1989 and I, later, in 1992.

I witnessed the plays written by young children as part of the Class Act Project,
held at the Voronezh Academic Drama theater, on May 26. The plays often
concentrated on dark themes, such as secret abortions, drug addiction, murder,
and suicide. It reminded me of the problems we encounter in Glasgow. One
dark play mentions a visitor, posing as a journalist to interview a prisoner who
has murdered his wife. He asks the prisoner to reenact the very murder but
while he is doing it the visitor murders the prisoner because : "You murdered
the woman I loved".

The local people treated us very well . We were given many excursions around
the theater and the city. The guide informed us that : "Our city can boast of
4 Noble prize winners." In deed, we learnt that famous writers such as Bunin,
Andrei Platonov and Marshak were born here. That is to name but a few!
The people seemed very kind, generous and hospitable. The city is very
beautiful. I spent many hours wandering around it just admiring the architecture.
People often asked me : "Are you Polish? " I had to disappoint them by confessing
I was Scottish but had Polish friends in Glasgow.

At my storytelling workshop I was amazed when one woman told me how her
grandfather had served in a punishment battalion during the Great Patriotic War.
She told us that her grandfather had worn a belt with the 91st psalm inscribed on
it. This psalm was reputed to act as a protective charm during battle. That is no
bullets could injure you if you wore this charm. Well it worked! He survived the war.
But that was not the end of the story. The soldier passed on this belt to his relatives.
One day, a man was carrying in his coat a huge fortune in order to buy an apartment.
He also wore the belt just in case he had problems. Unfortunately, he was stopped
by the police and they searched him. The police could not find his money. So he was
free to go and could go on to purchase his apartment. He was stopped in 1998.
The story was told by Anastasia about the soldier Grigori Nikolai. I had read a few
stories about such cases but this was the first time I had heard a first hand

We were quite sad to leave the city of Voronezh. It is a poignant city which no one
leaves before it has set its mark on you. It 's a pleasant shock!

Tuesday, June 5, 2018

CTU Audit?

Where is the CTU Audit?
By Theresa Boyle 

Dear CTU delegate,

My name is Therese Boyle and I am a citywide clinician delegate.  On June 6th, the HOD will be asked to approve the proposed CTU budget FY19.  We are facing a $3 million deficit if we don't make changes. We left May's HOD with limited information about where the budget cuts would be. Last year (FY18), we faced a huge deficit as well; we fixed the hole by shifting the Quest Center salaries over to the CTU Foundation budget.  We also agreed to make other cuts: $56,000 saved because CTU staff took furlough days in solidarity with CTU members, $50,000 savings in lawyer fees, $45,000 saved by eliminating the pocket calendars, $10,000 cut from the CTU Holiday party, and several other cuts. 

It is very important that we make an informed decision on June 6th.  Before you vote to approve the FY19 budget, I ask that you consider the following:

1.  The CTU Constitution and By-Laws require that "Each year, the Financial Secretary shall furnish an audited report of the Union which shall be printed in the Union’s publication"; CTU has not published the audits in the CUT for the past four years.  I have requested the audit reports from Financial Secretary Maria Moreno via email and spoke to James Gillmeister, CTU Financial Director, by telephone last week about getting the audits; however, I have not yet received them.  Why are the audit reports important?  Because the budgets we approve are simply a good faith proposal of how CTU plans to spend our money.  The audits tell us what really happened with our money during the year. The audits tell whether or not we stuck to the budget that the HOD approved. Delegates and dues paying members have a right to review the CTU budget audits that were completed for 2014, 2015, 2016, and 2017.

2. A review of the audit reports may help us understand how we went from having $8.8 million in reserves (see attached Resolution) in 2015 to only $3.5 million in reserves in March 2018(March statements attached).  Delegates  and members have a right to understand how we spent $5.3 million in reserves over the past three years.

3. The CTU IRS 990 (attached) for 6/30/2016 shows cash of $9,287,239.  The March 31, 2018 statement of financial position (attached) shows a cash balance of $2,409101.  Cash has declined $6,878,138 over the last 21 months.  Where did all this cash go?

4. Delegates and dues paying members have a right to a clear and detailed explanation of the Million Dollar Loan CTU gave to the CTU PAC.  Describing the loan as a "loan to a relative which your relative pays back" is not a clear explanation.

5.  CTU has not yet filed its IRS 990 Form for the year ending 6/30/17.  Why not?

Fellow delegates, I urge you to make sure you are fully informed before voting to approve a budget on June 6th.  If you are unsure, wait until you have all the information you need.

For your review, I am attaching a copy of the Million Dollar Loan questions I submitted on May 20th to CTU leadership, CTU Trustees, and CTU Eboard members (NO response to these questions).  I am also attaching a copy of the 2015 Resolution that seems to serve as HOD approval for the loan.

In solidarity,

Therese M. Boyle